Research Paper: How to Write a Bibliography

A bibliography is a list of the sources you used to get information for your report. It is included at the end of your report, on the last page (or last few pages).

You will find it easier to prepare your final bibliography if you keep track of each book, encyclopedia, or article you use as you are reading and taking notes. Start a preliminary, or draft, bibliography by listing on a separate sheet of paper all your sources. Note down the full title, author, place of publication, publisher, and date of publication for each source.

Also, every time a fact gets recorded on a note card, its source should be noted in the top right corner. When you are finished writing your paper, you can use the information on your note cards to double-check your bibliography.

When assembling a final bibliography, list your sources (texts, articles, interviews, and so on) in alphabetical order by authors' last names. Sources that don't have authors (encyclopedias, movies) should be put into alphabetical order by title. There are different formats for bibliographies, so be sure to use the one your teacher prefers.

When you write a bibliography by hand, use underlining as shown in the guide below. If you use a computer to write your bibliography, the publication names should be in italics.

General Guide to Formatting a Bibliography

For a book:

Author (last name first). Title of the book. City: Publisher, Date of publication.


Dahl, Roald. The BFG. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1982.

For an encyclopedia:

Encyclopedia Title, Edition Date. Volume Number, "Article Title," page numbers.


The Encyclopedia Brittanica, 1997. Volume 7, "Gorillas," pp. 50-51.

For a magazine:

Author (last name first), "Article Title." Name of magazine. Volume number, (Date): page numbers.


Jordan, Jennifer, "Filming at the Top of the World." Museum of Science Magazine. Volume 47, No. 1, (Winter 1998): p. 11.

For a newspaper:

Author (last name first), "Article Title." Name of newspaper, city, state of publication. (date): edition if available, section, page number(s).


Powers, Ann, "New Tune for the Material Girl." The New York Times, New York, NY. (3/1/98): Atlantic Region, Section 2, p. 34.

For a person:

Full name (last name first). Occupation. Date of interview.


Smeckleburg, Sweets. Bus driver. April 1, 1996.

For a film:

Title, Director, Distributor, Year.


Braveheart, Dir. Mel Gibson, Icon Productions, 1995


Disc title: Version, Date. "Article title," pages if given. Publisher.


Compton's Multimedia Encyclopedia: Macintosh version, 1995. "Civil rights movement," p.3. Compton's Newsmedia.

Magazine article:

Author (last name first). "Article title." Name of magazine (type of medium). Volume number, (Date): page numbers. If available: publisher of medium, version, date of issue.


Rollins, Fred. "Snowboard Madness." Sports Stuff (CD-ROM). Number 15, (February 1997): pp. 15-19. SIRS, Mac version, Winter 1997.

Newspaper article:

Author (last name first). "Article title." Name of newspaper (Type of medium), city and state of publication. (Date): If available: Edition, section and page number(s). If available: publisher of medium, version, date of issue.


Stevenson, Rhoda. "Nerve Sells." Community News (CD-ROM), Nassau, NY. (Feb 1996): pp. A4-5. SIRS, Mac. version, Spring 1996.

Sound recording:

Artist (last name first). "Song title." Album title. Orch. name. Perf. name. Comp. name. Cond. name. Rec. Day month year. Manufacturer name, Day month year of publication (use n.d. if unknown). Medium type.


Bernstein, Leonard. Candide: Opera House Version, 1982. Orch. New York City Opera Chorus and Orchestra. Perf. Erie Mills, Joyce Castle, Maris Clement, John Lankston, Jack Harrold, David Eisler, James Billings, Scott Reeve. Cond. John Mauceri. New York: New World Records, 1986. CD.

Online Resources


Author of message, (Date). Subject of message. Electronic conference or bulletin board (Online). Available e-mail: LISTSERV@ e-mail address


Ellen Block, (September 15, 1995). New Winners. Teen Booklist (Online). Helen

World Wide Web:

Last name, First name. "Section of Website." Title of the Web site. Version/Edition. Name of publisher or sponsor. Day Month Year of publication. Web. Day Month Year of access. <optional URL>.


Hutton, Lindsay. "7 Leprechaun Traps to Make for St. Patrick's Day." TeacherVision. 4 March 2016. Sandbox Networks, Inc. Web. 8 March 2016. <>.

Digital Files

Cite a digital file by its source type (e.g., newspaper, book, magazine, journal, image, sound recording). At the end of the entry, include the name of the digital format (e.g., PDF file, MP3, Microsoft Word file, JPEG file).

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