TeacherVision - Lesson Plans, Printables and more Free Trial  Member Benefits  Sign In    
Click Here
Mar 3, 2015
Search:   
We have merged TeacherVision's international content onto one website. Educators around the world can use TeacherVision.com to browse an extensive library of teaching materials. You can still find relevant content for Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States in our Educators' Calendars.  [x] CLOSE
|
 

Antecedent Prompting Procedures for Students with Autism

Excerpted from Social Skills for Students with Autism.

In this approach the teacher prompts the child to engage in some kind of interactive behavior, which, if it occurs, is responded to positively by classmates and the teacher.

This procedure, also known as teacher mediation, involves two distinct processes.
  • First, the student with autism is paired with a socially competent peer in a play setting. The peer usually is instructed to remain close by the student with autism and play if the student initiates or otherwise signals a desire to engage in social interaction.

  • Second, the teacher remains in the play area and provides periodic verbal prompts to the student with autism to engage in one of a variety of interactive behaviors (e.g., sharing, offering to engage in an activity). The teacher then waits a reasonable period of time (e.g., five seconds) for a response. If the student responds, the teacher provides praise and encouragement. If the student fails to respond, the teacher generally repeats the verbal prompt and physically assists him or her to engage in the social interaction.

Investigators have established that antecedent prompting procedures can be effective for children with autism. An increasingly used modification of the basic antecedent prompting procedure involves the use of teacher-mediated group affection activities to promote positive social interaction. In this program, children with autism and socially competent children are involved in typical preschool games, songs, and materials.

Initially, the children are prompted to greet each other by exchanging some form of physical affection, such as a hug or pat on the back. The children then participate in the games or activities, which are modified to include an affection component. For example, a group song such as “If you're happy and you know it, clap your hands” might be changed to “If you're happy and you know it, tickle your friend.” The benefits of this modified antecedent prompting procedure include:
  • A greater frequency of social interaction during the affection activities which appears to generalize and maintain in nontreatment settings
  • Desensitization to peer interaction
  • Exposure to natural social interactions with competent peers in free-play situations

Overall, these teacher-mediated procedures have been found to increase levels of social interaction, often above those found with peer-initiated strategies. These techniques are most effective when they include repeated exposure to socially competent peers in normalized environments. Finally, there is some evidence emerging that modifications of these procedures may result in generalization to other settings.

There are also drawbacks to the use of these techniques. Strain and Fox reported that teacher prompts can disrupt ongoing social exchanges, resulting in brief, sometimes stilted interactions. In addition, Odom and Strain compared antecedent prompting to peer initiation strategies and found that the children with autism became prompt dependent, initiating and responding only when instructed to do so by the teacher.

Finally, Voeltz suggested that when peers are prompted to initiate and instruct, they may perceive themselves as teachers rather than as friends. This drawback has been supported at least in part by research comparing academic tutoring to social interaction activities for students with autism. These researchers found that, although tutoring resulted in high levels of interaction, the interactions tended to be instructional rather than social.

More on Promoting Social Development for Students with Autism

Council for Exceptional Children

Provided in partnership with The Council for Exceptional Children.

Highlights

Galactic Hot Dogs Reading Marathon
Join the Galactic Hot Dogs Reading Marathon! Read each episode as it's re-released with newly revealed facts, behind-the-scenes illustrations, and the inside scoop. Make it official by pledging on the blog to read each chapter with Cosmoe. Your students will love following the exploits of these space travelers, and you'll love the educational elements that can easily be paired to the stories.

Handwashing Awareness
Kids are especially susceptible to contracting and spreading viruses during the winter months. Prevention starts with proper handwashing. Show students how to keep germs away.

March Calendar of Events
March is full events that you can incorporate into your standard curriculum. Our Educators' Calendar outlines activities for each event, including: National School Breakfast Week (3/2-6), World Orphan Week (3/4-11), Boston Massacre (3/5/1770), Daylight Saving Time Begins (3/8), International Women's Day (3/8), Teen Tech Week (3/8-14), Pi Day (3/14), St. Patrick's Day (3/17), Spring Begins (3/20), Make Your Own Holiday Day (3/26), and World Theatre Day (3/27). Plus, celebrate Deaf History Month (3/15-4/15), Music In Our Schools Month, Women's History Month, and Youth Art Month!

Poptropica Teaching Guides
Poptropica is one of the Internet's most popular sites for kids—and now it's available as an app for the iPad! It's not just a place to play games; each of the islands featured on the site provides a learning opportunity. Check out our teaching guides to four of Poptropica's islands: 24 Carrot Island, Time Tangled Island, Mystery Train Island, and Mythology Island.

Take Our Survey!
Help us improve TeacherVision by taking our brief survey. Thank you for your input!

Women's History Month
March is Women's History Month. Talk to your students about the accomplishments women have made—as well as the adversity they have faced.

Teaching with Comics
Reach reluctant readers and English-language learners with comics! Our original teaching guide to the Galactic Hot Dogs comic series, as found on Funbrain.com, will take students on a cosmic adventure while engaging their creative minds. Plus, find even more activities for teaching with comics, featuring many other classic stores.


Free 7-Day Trial for TeacherVision®

Sign up for a free trial and get access
to our huge library of teaching materials!
Start Trial