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Rosa Parks

Rosa Parks defined civil disobedience during the height of the civil rights movement.
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Rosa Parks

The courageous refusal of Rosa Parks to yield her seat on a Birmingham bus sparked the historic bus boycott in that city.

In a March 1999, article, Ebony magazine named her one of the 100 most important African American women of the twentieth century, and joined the large group of those considering her momentous act of civil disobedience one of the pivotal events in American history.

Parks is frequently referred to as the “Mother of the Civil Rights Movement.”

Potent Quote

On the larger meaning of her act of civil disobedience, Parks had this to say: “No matter how much a person or law may try to tell you what to do and/or deny you of your liberty, do not give up your seat on the bus of life. Don't give up your freedom and integrity. Stand for something or you'll fall for anything. Today's mighty oak is yesterday's nut that held its ground.”

To Learn More About Rosa Parks …

Visit www.time.com/time/time100/heroes/profile/parks01.html for a very detailed biography, composed by Rita Dove and published in Time magazine.

Excerpted from

The Complete Idiot's Guide to African-American History
Melba J. Duncan
Excerpted from The Complete Idiot's Guide to African-American History © 2003 by Melba J. Duncan. All rights reserved including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. Used by arrangement with Alpha Books, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc.

To order this book visit the Idiot's Guide web site or call 1-800-253-6476.