- Indicates the possessive case of singular and plural nouns, indefinite pronouns, and surnames combined with designations such as Jr., Sr., and II: My sister's husband; My three sisters' husbands; Anyone's guess; They answer each other's phones, John Smith Jr.'s car.
- Indicates joint possession when used with the last of two or more nouns in a series: Doe and Roe's report.
- Indicates individual possession or authorship when used with each of two or more nouns in a series: Smith's, Roe's, and Doe's reports.
- Indicates the plural of lowercase letters: Dot your i's and cross your t's.
- Indicates omission of letters in contractions: aren't, that's, o'clock.
- Indicates omission of figures in dates: the class of '63.