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U.S. Executive Offices and Independent Agencies

An article explaining additional agencies that aid the president.
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The President's Executive Office

The President's Executive Office is made up of a group of aides who, though not officially part of the Cabinet, wield considerable power and influence. Here are some of the offices you probably read about in the newspaper or hear mentioned on the news.

Office of Administration

  • Established: 1977
  • Director: Cathy Solomon
  • The Office of Administration provides administrative support to all units in the Executive Office of the President. The services include personnel, financial management, data processing, library services, records maintenance, and general office operations.

Office of National Drug Control Policy

  • Established: 1989
  • Director: Michael Botticelli
  • This office sets policies, priorities, and objectives for the nation's drug-control program, which is intended to reduce illegal drug use, manufacturing, and trafficking, as well cut the rate of drug-related crime and violence.

Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)

  • Established: 1946
  • Chair: Jason Furman
  • The CEA helps the President devise an economic policy that promotes employment, production, and purchasing power.

Council on Environmental Quality

  • Established: 1969
  • Acting Chair: Michael Boots
  • The council works with the President to formulate programs, strategies, laws, and regulations that help preserve the environment and the country's natural resources.

Office of Management and Budget

  • Established: 1970
  • Director: Shaun Donovan
  • The OMB helps the President prepare the Federal budget and makes sure the other executive agencies comply with its provisions.

Office of Science and Technology Policy

  • Established: 1976
  • Director: Dr. John Holdren
  • The Office of Science and Technology works to ensure that the United States remains a world leader in science and technology.

National Security Council (NSC)

  • Established: July 26, 1947
  • Chair: The President
  • National Security Adviser: Susan Rice
  • Other members: Vice President; Secretary of State; Secretary of Defense
  • The NSC's primary function is to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policy.

Office of the United States Trade Representative

  • Established: 1963
  • Trade Representative: Michael Froman
  • The Office of the United States Trade Representative develops and coordinates U.S. international trade, commodity, and direct-investment policy. The office also directs negotiations with other countries on such matters.

Major Independent Agencies

There are several administrative divisions of the government whose job it is to enforce and administer laws and regulations. Because provisions for these agencies were not outlined in the Constitution, they are considered independent extensions of theU.S. government. Here is a list of some of the major agencies.

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

  • Established: 1947
  • Director: John O. Brennan
  • The CIA conducts counterintelligence activities and other functions related to foreign intelligence and national security, as directed by the President and National Security Council.

U.S. Commission on Civil Rights

  • Established: 1957
  • Chair: Martin R. Castro
  • The commission investigates complaints of discrimination and denial of equal protection of laws, evaluates Federal laws concerning discrimination and denial of equal protection, and issues public service messages that discourage discrimination.

Consumer Product Safety Commission

  • Established: 1972
  • Chairperson: Elliot F. Kaye
  • The CPSC aims to reduce the risk of injuries and deaths from consumer products by developing and enforcing safety standards, recalling defective products, and researching potentially hazardous products.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

  • Established: 1970
  • Administrator: Gina McCarthy
  • The EPA mission is to protect human health and the natural environment — air, water, and land — by making and enforcing environmental laws.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

  • Established: 1965
  • Chair: Jenny R. Yang
  • The EEOC promotes equal opportunity in employment by enforcing federal civil-rights laws and through education and technical assistance.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

  • Established: 1933
  • Chair: Martin J. Gruenberg
  • The FDIC insures banks deposits so that people's money is protected if a bank fails. The FDIC also supervises 6,000 banks and financial institutions and manages bank failures to minimize complications.

Federal Election Commission (FEC)

  • Established: 1974
  • Chair: Ann M. Ravel
  • The FEC was created uphold the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA), which regulates the financing of federal elections.

Federal Reserve System (FRS)

  • Established: 1913
  • Chair: Janet Yellen
  • The Federal Reserve System, which includes 12 regional Federal reserve banks that are supervised by a Federal Reserve Board, is the central bank of the United States. Its original mission was to ensure the country's financial system remained stable. Itsrole has expanded and now includes regulating credit conditions and loan rates, regulating banks, and advising the government on the country's payments system.

Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

  • Established: 1914
  • Chair: Edith Ramirez
  • The FTC enforces several federal antitrust and consumer-protection laws. The Commission makes sure the nation's businesses are competitive, healthy, free of unfair restrictions, and are fair to consumers.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

  • Administrator: Charles Bolden
  • NASA conducts research and develops programs in the areas of space exploration, artificial satellites, and rocketry. NASA's best known projects are the Space Shuttle, the Hubble Space Telescope, the Galileo mission to Jupiter, and the agency's aeronauticsresearch.

National Endowment for the Arts

  • Established: 1965
  • Chair:R. Jane Chu
  • The agency supports the arts by funding museums, artists, and arts-related programs for schools and communities.

National Endowment for the Humanities

  • Established: 1965
  • Chairs: ChairWilliam 'Bro' Adams
  • The agency promotes excellence in the humanities and conveys the lessons of history to all Americans.

National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)

  • Established: 1935
  • Chair: Mark Gaston Pearce
  • The NLRB enforces the National Labor Relations Act, which is the law that oversees relations between unions and employers in the private sector. It holds elections to determine if employees want to unionize and investigates and fixes unfair labor practicesby employers and unions.

National Science Foundation (NSF)

  • Established: 1950
  • Director: France A. Córdova,
  • The NSF promotes science and engineering through research and education programs.

National Transportation Safety Board

  • Established: 1975
  • Acting Chair: Christopher A. Hart
  • The NTSB investigates every civil aviation accident in the United States, as well as railroad, highway, and marine accidents. The board also makes safety recommendations aimed at preventing future accidents.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

  • Established:1975
  • Chair: Stephen G. Burns
  • The NRC licenses and regulates the nonmilitary use of nuclear energy to protect the public and the environment.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

  • Established: 1934
  • Chair: Mary Jo White
  • The SEC administers federal securities laws. These laws protect investors in securities markets and ensure that investors have access to information about publicly traded securities. The Commission also regulates firms engaged in the purchaseor sale of securities, people who provide investment advice, and investment companies.

Small Business Administration (SBA)

  • Established: 1953
  • Administrator: Maria Contreras-Sweet
  • The SBA provides financial, technical, and management assistance to help Americans start, run, and grow their businesses.

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