# Measurement of Time

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Here is a word of explanation before we address the measurement of time. We have no doubt about the reader's ability to tell time. This topic, as treated in this text, is not about learning to tell time. However, in order to teach children to tell time, the reader needs to understand some of the difficulties that children have with time-telling and with learning to tell time. In this particular case, pedagogical content knowledge means learning and understanding why children have difficulty learning to tell time. This is a surprisingly difficult topic for children.

Learning to tell time on a clock with hands and a face (an analog clock) has always been surprisingly challenging for children. Although this topic has traditionally been a part of the first grade curriculum, many children, even children who learn mathematics easily, have had difficulties learning to tell time on analog clocks. With the introduction of digital clocks many years ago, children have found it to be even more difficult to learn to tell time on analog clocks. Why are analog clocks difficult for children, and why does the presence of digital clocks make this even more difficult? First we will examine the digital clock question, and then we will explore the question about children's difficulty with analog clocks.

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Elementary Mathematics: Pedagogical Content Knowledge, by James E. Schwartz, is designed to sharpen pre-service and in-service teachers' mathematics pedagogical content knowledge. The five "powerful ideas" (composition, decomposition, relationships, representation, and context) provide an organizing framework and highlight the interconnections between mathematics topics. In addition, the text thoroughly integrates discussion of the five NCTM process strands.

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