|
 

Multiple Intelligences: An Overview

The Eight Intelligences Described

Almost eighty years after the first intelligence tests were developed, Howard Gardner challenged the view that something called "intelligence" could be objectively measured and reduced to a single number or "IQ" score. In his book Frames of Mind (Gardner 1983) he proposed the existence of at least eight basic intelligences. In his theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI theory), Gardner sought to broaden the scope of human potential beyond the confines of the IQ score and suggested that intelligence has more to do with the capacity for (1) solving problems and (2) fashioning products in a context-rich and naturalistic setting.

Here are Gardner's eight comprehensive categories or "intelligences":

  • Linguistic Intelligence: The capacity to use words effectively, whether orally (e.g., as a storyteller, orator, or politician) or in writing (e.g., as a poet, playwright, editor, or journalist).

  • Logical-Mathematical Intelligence: The capacity to use numbers effectively (e.g., as a mathematician, tax accountant, or statistician) and to reason well (e.g., as a scientist, computer programmer, or logician).

  • Spatial Intelligence: The ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately (e.g., as a hunter, scout, or guide) and to perform transformations upon those perceptions (e.g., as an interior decorator, architect, artist, or inventor).

  • Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence: Expertise in using one's whole body to express ideas and feelings (e.g., as an actor, a mime, an athlete, or a dancer) and facility in using one's hands to produce or transform things (e.g., as a craftsperson, sculptor, mechanic, or surgeon).

  • Musical Intelligence: The capacity to perceive (e.g., as a music aficionado), discriminate (e.g., as a music critic), transform (e.g., as a composer), and express (e.g., as a performer) musical forms.

  • Interpersonal Intelligence: The ability to perceive and make distinctions in the moods, intentions, motivations, and feelings of other people.

  • Intrapersonal Intelligence: Self-knowledge and the ability to act adaptively on the basis of that knowledge.

  • Naturalistic Intelligence: The ability to easily recognize and classify plants, animals, and other things in nature.

Note: When Howard Gardner wrote Frames of Mind in 1983, he deliberately limited his examination of human capacities to seven intelligences. Are there more? Yes. In fact, after this book was published Gardner added an eighth intelligence to the list. The Naturalist Intelligence is the ability to recognize plant or animal species in one's environment.

Brought to you by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Highlights

Back to School Headquarters
August is Back to School Month and many of you will be returning to the classroom very soon. Feeling unprepared? We have you covered! Check out our very best resources and advice for New Teachers (applicable for the new and experienced), as well as Bulletin Board ideas, Icebreakers, Open House materials, and general Classroom Management tips for a successful new school year.

Special Offers for Teachers Newsletter
Do you receive our Special Offers for Teachers newsletter? Each month, we send out FREE resources to all of our subscribers. Our next issue (August 12) features a collection of our best Back-to-School materials—that's right, sign up now and get them for free!

Discounts for Teachers
Start the new school year with cash in your pocket! We have some great ways to save money on the supplies that keep your classroom running: Money-Saving Tips for Teachers and Free & Cheap Rewards for Students. Plus, check out our Discounts for Teachers so you can save on office supplies, clothing, books, crafts and fabric, travel, and more!

August Calendar of Events
August is full events that you can incorporate into your standard curriculum. Our Educators' Calendar outlines activities for each event, including: Friendship Day (8/2), President Obama's Birthday (8/4/1961), Astronaut Neil Armstrong's Birthday (8/5/1930), International Art Appreciation Day (8/9), International Youth Day (8/12), Aviation Day (8/19), Tooth Fairy Day (8/22), International Day for Remembrance of Slave Trade & Its Abolition (8/23), and Women's Equality Day (8/26). Plus, celebrate Back to School Month and Get Ready for Kindergarten Month all August long!

Poptropica Teaching Guides
Poptropica is one of the Internet's most popular sites for kids—and now it's available as an app for the iPad! It's not just a place to play games; each of the islands featured on the site provides a learning opportunity. Check out our teaching guides to four of Poptropica's islands: 24 Carrot Island, Time Tangled Island, Mystery Train Island, and Mythology Island.


Free 7-Day Trial for TeacherVision®

Sign up for a free trial and get access
to our huge library of teaching materials!

Start Trial