|
 

Slave Ships

In 1619, the first African captives arrived in the colony of Virginia. The evidence indicates that the very first Africans were regarded as indentured servants, but by the middle of the seventeenth century a tradition of lifelong labor for enslaved Africans had been firmly established, particularly in the South.

FAQs

What was indentured servitude? Those in indentured servitude were bound to labor for another person for a certain number of years to pay off a monetary debt or other obligation. When the obligation was repaid, the indentured servant was freed.

Snapshot: Life and Death on a Slave Ship

In 1972, salvager Mel Fisher and other treasure-hunters stumbled across the sunken wreckage of the Henrietta Marie, a slave ship that was lost to the ocean in 1700 after having just delivered perhaps 300 African men to lives of slavery in the Americas.

In the years since the discovery of the Henrietta Marie, treasure seekers and scientists have been retrieving artifacts from the wreckage (See “Last Voyage of the Slave Ship Henrietta Marie,” Jennifer Steinberg, National Geographic magazine, August 2002). Their discoveries have painted a chilling picture of the immense and hellish human toll of the global slave trade. The ship is the oldest slave-trading vessel ever recovered, and one of very few to be located in U.S. waters.

Here are some of the conclusions we can now draw about the Henrietta Marie (and the many ships like her).

Sold to New Captors

Scholars believe that many of the slaves who were transported to North America and Europe in ships like the Henrietta Marie met their fate because they had fallen prisoners to rival tribes in Africa. Their enemies sold them to slave traders for such European goods as beads, spoons, and iron bars.

Keeping the Cargo Fed

The Africans on board the Henrietta Marie were fed two meals each day. A massive copper cooking cauldron was raised from the sea in 1972; it was apparently used to prepare boiled yams and beans.

A Long and Deadly Journey

Captives spent roughly three months at sea making the journey from West Africa to Jamaica. As a slaver, the Henrietta Marie completed two such trips and delivered 450 Africans to captivity in the New World.

Their wrists held in place by iron shackles, the captives were herded into crowded holds like beasts. The conditions were unspeakable, and it is not surprising that an estimated 20 percent of the prisoners perished on the journey.

African men and women who died en route were tossed overboard for sharks to devour.

Excerpted from The Complete Idiot's Guide to African-American History © 2003 by Melba J. Duncan. All rights reserved including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. Used by arrangement with Alpha Books, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc.

To order this book visit the Idiot's Guide web site or call 1-800-253-6476.

Highlights

Back to School Headquarters
August is Back to School Month and many of you will be returning to the classroom very soon. Feeling unprepared? We have you covered! Check out our very best resources and advice for New Teachers (applicable for the new and experienced), as well as Bulletin Board ideas, Icebreakers, Open House materials, and general Classroom Management tips for a successful new school year.

Special Offers for Teachers Newsletter
Do you receive our Special Offers for Teachers newsletter? Each month, we send out FREE resources to all of our subscribers. Our next issue (August 12) features a collection of our best Back-to-School materials—that's right, sign up now and get them for free!

Discounts for Teachers
Start the new school year with cash in your pocket! We have some great ways to save money on the supplies that keep your classroom running: Money-Saving Tips for Teachers and Free & Cheap Rewards for Students. Plus, check out our Discounts for Teachers so you can save on office supplies, clothing, books, crafts and fabric, travel, and more!

August Calendar of Events
August is full events that you can incorporate into your standard curriculum. Our Educators' Calendar outlines activities for each event, including: Friendship Day (8/2), President Obama's Birthday (8/4/1961), Astronaut Neil Armstrong's Birthday (8/5/1930), International Art Appreciation Day (8/9), International Youth Day (8/12), Aviation Day (8/19), Tooth Fairy Day (8/22), International Day for Remembrance of Slave Trade & Its Abolition (8/23), and Women's Equality Day (8/26). Plus, celebrate Back to School Month and Get Ready for Kindergarten Month all August long!

Poptropica Teaching Guides
Poptropica is one of the Internet's most popular sites for kids—and now it's available as an app for the iPad! It's not just a place to play games; each of the islands featured on the site provides a learning opportunity. Check out our teaching guides to four of Poptropica's islands: 24 Carrot Island, Time Tangled Island, Mystery Train Island, and Mythology Island.


Free 7-Day Trial for TeacherVision®

Sign up for a free trial and get access
to our huge library of teaching materials!

Start Trial